On April 11, 2019, Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir was dismissed by the military after taking office for nearly 30 years. The administration then faced the greatest challenges in its history-high living costs and four months of daily demonstrations against the administration. Under pressure from the streets, the army had to release the country’s strong man, arrest him, and imprison him in the famous Kobel prison in Khartoum.
Bloody repression and repeated violence
In Sudan, young people continue to demonstrate weekly in the country against high living costs and the ruling government, despite severe crackdowns by military authorities. Three years after the end of the dictator Omar al-Bashir administration, the country still faces a serious political and economic crisis. Since the end of the coup d’etat and its successful democratization on October 25, 2019, Omar al-Bashir’s 30-year dictatorship has yet to have a government in the country.
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To date, with the exception of a few Islamic parties, the junta in Khartoum has been unable to find a new partner that could support the formation of a provisional government. At the end of February, the United Nations expressed concern about the enormous number of children’s rights infringement directly related to recent protests, according to UN news. At a meeting of the UN Human Rights Council on the situation in Sudan, High Commissioner for Human Rights Michelle Bachelet said: “Reliable medical personnel report that 85 people were killed, including women and 11 children, according to a count compiled on March 3.”
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At the end of February, more than 200 violations were observed, including at least 10 children killed and dozens injured, according to the same UN sources. Last February, UN independent expert Adama Dieng spent four days in the country, urging Sudanese troops to stop firing live ammunition and dropping tear gas on demonstrators. He also said he was very worried about the sexual violence that primarily women suffer.More generally, Adama Dieng said he was worried “Expansion of law enforcement authority to general security units during a state of emergency and temporary immunity from prosecution granted to these units.”
The transition to vulnerable democratization
On October 25, the ruling party’s chief, General Abdelfatta Albrhane, dissolved the interim government and the Southern Transitional Council. In the process, he put the private prime minister, Abdullah Hamdock, under house arrest.
He has also taken some exceptional steps, including a state of emergency, especially the suspension of the Constitutional Charter, which organizes the sharing of power between civilians and soldiers since the collapse of Omar El Basir in April 2019. I took it. Elections are scheduled for 2024 in principle. After nearly a month of popular demonstrations, a new agreement was reached in November 2021 on the transition, and the head of the military regime returned to Prime Minister Abdullah Hamdock.
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The main mission of Abdullah Hamdock this time was to form a technocratic government before the elections scheduled for July 2023. Unfortunately, the protests continued and the street accused the Prime Minister of signing an agreement with the military. Dressing aimed at meeting the demands of the international community. In addition, the United States, like multilateral organizations such as the IMF and the International Monetary Fund, granted immediate approval, but conditional on the resumption of fiscal aid.
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And among these conditions are, among other things, the Constitution of the Civilian Government, the release of those detained after October 25, the lifting of the state of emergency, and the end of violence against peaceful demonstrators. Prime Minister Abdullah Hamdock was to resign on January 2, 2022, characterized by continued demonstrations, a serious economic crisis, and a permanent division between various powers of civil society. Government is accepted by all parties. Indeed, the Army of Freedom and Change, and the popular Resistance Commission, the pioneers of the 2019 revolution, are demanding the withdrawal of the army from political life.
Serious economic crisis
µ In addition to this persistent political crisis, Sudan also faces significant financial difficulties. According to a summary note by COFACE, a French foreign trade insurance company, “economic stabilization is closely linked to financial support from foreign partners (US, IMF, World Bank, France, US, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates). Related to., Egypt), which itself depends on the acceptance of new institutional arrangements. »»
And yet, according to COFACE, even if these conditions are met, household consumption remains constrained by high levels of unemployment, violence and, of course, anxiety.
Since the coup d’etat in October 2021, Sudanese currencies have lost a quarter of their value and inflation is officially 260%. And according to the WFP, the World Food Program says that nearly 9 million Sudanese are suffering from severe hunger out of a total population of just over 44 million. In addition, according to the United Nations, more than 18 million Sudanese, or nearly half of the local population, could face a serious famine by this fall.
The COFACE briefing note states: “Households will continue to face hyperinflation, fueled by deficit monetization, but above all, turmoil in food and fuel supply supplies and low productivity due to demonstrations affecting the port cities of the Red Sea. .Agriculture. “”
What is the fate of Omar al-Bashir?
The charges of genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity in Darfur were allegedly the issue of handing over a dictator under the civilian government of former Prime Minister Abdullah Hamdock. ICC, Omar al-Bashir of the International Criminal Court. Unfortunately, the political negotiations on his transfer were unsuccessful due to the sovereign council led by General Abdelfatta Albrhane. The October 2021 coup has definitely filled the initiative in this direction. In addition, Omar al-Bashir was subsequently transferred to a specialized hospital in Khartoum, where there were several senior executives from the former political party. A few days ago, about 20 employees of the old regime were authorized and released by the court.